Review for Midterm Exam
1. There are two dimensions of every message: content and relationship. Explain the difference between these two dimensions and provide examples of each.
2. Explain the communication competence model. What does “We-orientation versus Me-orientation” mean? How does individualism and collectivism relate to the We-versus-Me viewpoint?
3. A competent communicator is effective and appropriate in their communication. How do effectiveness and appropriateness interrelate? Can you have one without the other? Explain. Can your communication be ethical without both effectiveness and appropriateness? Define Sensitivity. How does it relate to communication competence?
4. Explain what a system is and how it relates to small groups. What is the ripple effect? What is group synergy? Negative synergy? Boundary control? How does size affect small groups? Provide examples. What is the optimum size for a group to function effectively?
5. Can groups be too open? Explain. Can groups be too closed? Explain your answer and provide examples.
6. All groups have a task and social dimension. Explain the difference between the two. How do the two dimensions interrelate? Can you be too task oriented? Socially oriented? Explain.
7. What are the best ways to deal with difficult group members? What are the least effective ways to deal with difficult group members? Explain the steps groups need to take if they have difficult members.
8. What is a norm? Explain the two types of norms. What are the primary conditions that produce conformity to group norms? How do groups usually respond to members’ nonconformity to group norms? Why do group members conform to norms? Is there greater conformity in individualist or collectivist cultures as a rule? Is conformity a negative phenomenon in groups?
9. What is group polarization? How is it different from risky shift phenomenon? Why does group polarization occur?
10. Under what conditions is group performance superior to individual performance? When is it the reverse?
11. What is social loafing? How can groups combat social loafing?
12. How can newcomers in a group gain acceptance from the group?
13. How does gender and ethnicity affect group development?
14. Explain in what ways competition affects performance and achievement, character, self-esteem, and group cohesiveness. Be familiar with the research in all of those areas.
15. Explain the six defensive and supportive communication patterns. Provide examples for each. How does defensive and supportive communication relate to competition and cooperation?
16. What is the Stanford prison study?    What did it show about the power of roles?
17. Explain how roles emerge. How does leadership typically emerge?
18. Explain how not to become a leader? What steps would you take if you want to become a group leader? What should you do to retain the leader role once you have become a leader?
19. Explain the different perspectives on leadership: traits, styles, situations, functions, and competence. Be familiar with the Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model. Also be familiar with the case study of Alfred Dunlap and Aaron Feuerstein and the leadership perspectives these two men represent.