Chapter 2: Describing Cultural Patterns
[Hofstede’s Value Dimensions]
Collectivism (p. 60)
The group is valued over the individual.
Value: harmony, conformity, & slow consensus building.
The individual is valued over the group.
Value: dissent and diversity, debate and disagreement.
Masculinity and Femininity:
The degree to which masculine or feminine traits are valued. (p. 67)
Value assertive behaviors.
Prefer autocratic leadership.
Value caring and nurturing behaviors.
These cultures value relationships with others.
These cultures prefer participative leadership.
the degree to which a culture emphasizes status and power differences among members. (p. 65)
High Power Distance
Status differences are maximized in these cultures.
People in these cultures are not created equal.
These cultures tend to prefer authoritarian and directive leadership.
Low Power Distance
Status differences are minimized in these cultures.
People are created equal
These cultures prefer democratic, participative leadership.
the degree to which members of a culture embrace or avoid uncertainty. (p. 63)
High Uncertainty Avoidance
These cultures are uncomfortable with ambiguity (lack of structure.)
These cultures tend to prefer clear rules and norms, high structure, structured leadership.
Low Uncertainty Avoidance
These cultures tend to have a high tolerance for ambiguity.
They tend to be comfortable with loose, flexible rules.
These cultures tend to prefer democratic leadership.
[Hall’s Context Orientation]
source of the meaning in the messages; where the meaning comes from. (p. 77)
The meaning of a message is conveyed by features of the situation or context.
These cultures tend to prefer indirect communication.
These cultures tend to be collectivist cultures.
The meaning of a message is conveyed by the verbal or explicit part of the message.
These cultures tend to prefer clear, direct communication.
These cultures tend to be Individualistic.
[Kluckhohns and Strodtbeck’s Value Orientations]
Time Orientations (p. 72)
Past Orientation – the past has the most significance in the culture.
Present Orientation – the present has the most significance in the culture.
Future Orientation – the future has the most significance in the culture.