CMST. 260 Outline:
Adjunct Instructor:† TJ Williams
206 769 8585
Winter Quarter 2009
Cinematography by Kris Malkiewicz and David Mullen 3rd edition
Updated for the 21st Century.
Film Lighting by Kris Malkiewicz interviews with well known Dpís
American Cinematographer Manual, published by the ASC
Professional Cameramanís Handbook Vern and Sylvia Carlson
Kodak Student Filmmakerís Handbook, Kodak communications.
A man With a Camera Nestor Almendros
Masters of Light Schaefer and Salvato
Masters of Light and Depth, Ross Lowell
Meetings Overview: Class meets Monday and Wednesday at 3:00 until 5:10
There will be a 10 minute break in the middle of class. The first class meeting is Monday, Jan 5
Meetings may vary in order and date to accommodate† guest speakers or field trips. We will be asking working professionals to give their time and facilities to open themselves for student tours which must clearly be done around their paid client schedules. If it can be made to meet most student schedules then some of the trips will be at hours other than the class hours.
In all Meetings: Other topics may be introduced by student questions or from our discussions. When we run quick on the outline topics we will open the floor to discussions of student interest or show short movie clips and discuss their lighting and camera movement techniques. The class will have a number of quizzes (to be determined) some short class reports, according to student desire for extra credit. small group projects† and a class group project The small group project and class project will count for 60% of the grade. 40 % of the grade will be based on the quizzes and final. Additional points will be assigned by the instructor for outstanding class participation or extra projects negotiated with the instructor.† You cannot audit this class. The small and large groups will meet for their productions both for planning in class during class time and on the shooting locations during class time. The instructor will attend large group of campus shooting sessions. All class students may attend the shootings of other groups as observers and will receive participation credit for doing so.
Required for all classes: Dvd,player interface to laptop, †Dv tape playback to projector. Or large monitor. Composite feed from camera or computer for demonstrations live in class.Clear space for students to work. Ability to move chairs to edges of room. Ability to darken room.
The large class Project will include Shooting †of a sequence selected from a script, by the Cine. 260 instructor. As above. Or provided by the instructor or from a class member and approved by the class majority.† This project will be shot using digital / Film cinema techniques. Panasonic HD, RED Digital Cine Camera, and 16m film camera will be used to shoot multiple camera coverage. The shoot will be directed by the Cine 260 instr. Color correction in either RED Cine. Or on Final Cut Studio. And or at a color correction facility will be used. †
In the Above Whole Class project, Students will rotate through crew positions. Including:† Dp, Operator, First Asst. Second Asst. Gaffer, Key Grip, Art Director, Grips Electricians País† There will be tryouts for Dp, Operator 2nd Operator 1st Asst. 2nd Asst Loader. For the large group project.
The class will vote after watching each person perform the job and talk to the class about what they want to do. The remainder of the class will be selected or self select for Makeup, hair, costumes, props, design and the other necessary crafts.† Often these positions will give an opportunity to observe and learn which is superior to actually doing the job at this beginning level. This also gives an exploratory opportunity for students to consider some of the many other film crafts.
One of our class members may direct, as the class chooses. Their participation will be limited in this situation to directing, and blocking the actors. The team from Cine. Class will decide on camera setups angles sight lines direction of camera movement, execution of camera movement, lighting instruments and lighting style. In other words in this special learning situation the Director will not make any technical decisions.
(Some suggestions on Storyís for the project: All Projects will be shot from scripts or boards.
Sequences which features violence or action scenes †love scenes, beatings, bar fights, gun fights, comic pratfalls, monster attacks, chases of various sorts. Horror sequences etc., as a major part of the work in cinema is concerned with sex and violence. Also these types of sequences avoid dramatic direction, sync sound recording, and instead emphasize the blocking, lighting and tricks and techniques of camera† and subject movement. You should create action sequences to be cut from shots where the actual sex and or violence has not actually happened. Dps. usually have a significant role in this part of the design of films, so we will not be moving so much into the territory of the director) From a lighting credit standpoint you will do better to set your project in night exteriors or night / day interiors.
Week 1.† Basic Cinematography Class: Ordering of film stock selection of film stock by week2
0 By meeting 3 read first two chapters in Cinematography be ready for††
Quiz at meeting 3 hopefully we will review at †meeting 2 or in the meeting directly before the quiz. Time in class to form small groups for small group project.
Hour two mechanics of Film Cameras introduction to assisting.
TJj on assisting
Loading dummy loads into GSMO/CPr/EclairAcl
Required:† Dvd Lrd RingComment disk 1. CD Sequences.
Film cameras and dummy loads.
Request any students who have light meters to bring them to session 2.
Request students look at Eastman web site or
Week 2.† Be ready for quiz 1 next meeting metering and first two text ch.
Do review in class.
1. Meters and metering.† Measurement of ambient light, key fill ratios. Reflective and spot metering. Mechanics of meters.
2. Gossen Luna pro info:† http://www.butkus.org/chinon/luna-pro_f/luna-pro_f-splash.htm
3. Minolta† and† Konica manual sites: http://kmpi.konicaminolta.us/eprise/main/kmpi/content/cam/cam_SupportCenter/ManualResults
4. Older Sekonic, selenium cell,† needs no battery L398 as used by: Dp.† Vittorio Storaro† Most Dp establish part of their personal style thru meter choices.
5. The lens barrel T and F stops.† 1.6 2.8 4.0 5.6 8.0 11.0 16.00 22.00 32.00† stops are doubling.
6. Displays and the info. You get ie. Range of stops visible in analog types, or know them in digital metering. How, digital/new is not necessarily better. Ruggedness of digital meters.
7. Calibration in the field, compare meters ie gaffer and Dp.
8. Range of stops on film and tape. How tape is like reversal film.
9. Behind the lens metering on film and tape cameras. The patterns. The weaknesses.
10. Focus, the depth of field and itís causes. The need for a cinema lens to: not breathe, move evenly thru the focal distances, gearing, 32 tooth 20 degree,
11. zoom by rotating. The lens barrel, gearing need for, common zoom ranges in cinema lenses, weaknesses and advantage of zooms compared to prime lenses.
12. Students use a variety of meters to take readings of areas in the classroom and/or adjoining areas.
13. Divide into groups submit script, first group if ready pickup super 8 camera and meter.
Signout sheets for super 8 camera equipment.
Bring super 8 cameras and ancilliary equipment.
2nd Hour: Introduction to lighting use of a multiple soft or hard lights to light the human face High key, Low key, Kicker hair light, back light set light etc. contrast measurement.†
Required: My spot meter and my reflective meter. My old Sekonic meter the
Request students bring samples of dvd or vhs video to show lighting examples they like in films to discuss. For next time.
Week 3.† Quiz on light metering. First two chapters of text. Be ready next week for quiz on filters and lighting from the text.
1. Forming of groups for projects. 1 to 3 person groups will shoot and edit a sequence which will be lit, have camera movement, shot out of sequence, Include the adjunct aspects discussed in upcoming classes, and be of an ďaction natureĒ shot on Super 8 film.
2. Discussion of the project.† Setting of the rules for grading: each participant grades 1 thru 3 their fellow participants. the grades are then distributed by points to each participant.† Standard of project grading will be a vote of the class rating the projects 1 thru /// by secret ballot. The class members are instructed to vote according to the cinematography values taught and discussed in class.† Rationale is that we are learning to make images in support of entertainment so audience reaction is really the only criteria.
3. Discussion of the difference between light levels for exposure and the aesthetics of actually lighting scenes. Use of Shadow. Bright BG KeyFillRimSoftHardKicketc.
4. Show some examples of lighting and discuss them. Student DVDs or the downloads I bring.
5. Basic Lighting Design, The three light setup.
6. Soft versus hard light, how they are achieved, types of instruments and grip equipment or chimeras etc. abolut hard light wide shots with soft light close-ups.
7. Key and fill ratios.
8. Side and rim lighting.
9. Light color, the black ball glows for Kelvin.
10. Introduction to types of instruments. Quartz, Hmi, Kino, sodium vapor, (new street lights) halogen? (blue street lights)
11. estranious sources, turn em off esp charge coupled and masking with duvy etc.
12. Student groups get together for a little planning and to exchange phones, e mail etc.† Next time a spokesperson from each group will present on why they are choosing stock XXX Why itís right for their project. What qualities it has.† Where they will buy it. Where they will have it processed.
Shooting from a tripod. We will use a long lens and focus puller operator pair to follow tightly framed shots of multiple actors moving about the room sitting etc. Each person in the class will get a turn others will judge the framing smoothness and focus accuracy.
Required:† My basic lighting kit, some silk, singles doubles 1 C stand, school kit. Stinger cables, large sheet clips, ladder if possible. Dimmers.
School video camera hooked into projector. Bring Cds of downloaded materials, show on laptop? Bring my DV camera or use school P200camera for 2nd hour. Need projector or large monitor. Need focus tape and tape for floor marks for actors.
Week 4. †Quiz on filters and lighting. This following is very wonky gearhead stuff! I will not quiz on this as not everyone is a technician but it is good to know if you want to work in a camera dept. Be sure to select someone who paid attention here to load and assist on your project! Next week quiz on chapter on image manipulation.
1. Camera mechanisms, intermittent movement, claws, Registration pins, pull down, mag drives, motors, accessories etc.
2. camera loading, Each student will load at least one of the cameras.
3. test run, loop test,†
4. scratch test.
5. Camera controls. Speeds, meters, start stop (close open switch) not intermit like video camera, other controls.
6. Camera power. 12V 24V what that means amps and real current.
7. Camera speeds, crystal speeds, sync sound introduction. Incl 24, us sync 25 euro. Pal,† history incl18fps, 29.97 and 30 fps and why.
8. Common cameras incl: Live demo on Cp 16 Cp gsmo, Arri Bl 16† manuals† demo on† Arri SR 16† Aaton 16† Arri Bl 35† others as time allows.
9. shooting tests and their importance. Camera/stock/lighting/costumes/
10. speed ramping how it works.
11. student groups to bring a 1 paragraph report on a film stock they are considering using and why they think it would be right for their project.
12. discussion of film stocks and rating speed, pushing, pulling, bleach bypass processing, etc.
13. Collect exposed super 8 film to send to lab† in LA
Required:† Bcc Cp, My GSMO and Arri Bl, 12 V power supplied by Bcc tech. My† PDF Manuals project from laptop. 16mm film stock NG for tests loading by students etc. fm my recan frig.
LAST CHANCE TO SUBMIT SUPER *
1. Screen direction the proscenium or the line.
2. Eye lines lord of the rings looking
at Hobbits, and esp the
3. lighting direction and continuity, key movement on CU overlapped lighting, continuousness of ratios, continuousness of depth of field in cross coverage.
4. getting coverage.
5. overlapped action as a coverage strategy
6. master and cu coverage strategy
7. Single shot masters crane and Steadicam as a coverage strategy.
8. story boards, script breakdown etc. the planning for the shoot.
9. Student groups have meetings to finalize their scripts.
Required:† Some scripts, some call sheets, some breakdowns if possible, some storyboards for spots etc.
Request:† Students bring the completed scripts to the next class. This should be every small group. They should not be usual or commonly formatted movie scripts because:† The scripts should emphasize camera movement, lighting type and direction, actor placement sizing and movement, and locations
WE will setup the large group project, possibly shoot a Tv commercial or other dramatic sequence on 16mm if the group has agreed to fund it.† Otherwise on P2 Or Dv using my camera. so we can use longer lenses. Rehearsel of the shots Casting of talent, deciding on crewing positions. Scheduling of the day time for shooting.† Prefer night or interiors for this project.
We will get the exposed film back and try to do telecine/Digital Intermediate in this week.† Either hands on or one light as students agreed to fund.
1. Deciding on positions other that rotating positions for Large group project.
2. Discussion of specific problems of lighting, rigging, matching etc. in the various student projects.
3. Set up rehearsel situations in class using the student projects and or made up dramatic examples and light the shots.
4. Lecture/discussion about moving the key light in from wide shots(ws) to closeup (cu.)
5. position the camera to isolate the action from the background in these demonstrations.
6. discussion of the readings.
7. viewing of more student supplied or my clips talk about the lighting of the various shots and especially the match between shots. Discussion of shooting at the same depth of field. In matching shots.
8. Discussion and possible demonstration of atmospherics.
9. Discussion of transfer to tape process.
We will have a final test on class meeting one.
We will have a discussion or guest to be determined.
We will have the showing and evaluation of the projects at meeting two.
Meeting 14 thru 21. (*or fill in other order or mix with classes.) All That are available within our time/ scheduling constraints.
1. Alpha Cine Lab tour, timing light
tour. contact Jean Fee†
firstname.lastname@example.org timer to
give tour Ryan Adams phone
2. Modern Digital or Victory Studios Davinci film to tape transfer color correction. †tour of color correction and digital intermediates. Also projection set up. At Alpha
3. Basic Camea Mechanics, loading, assisting.
4. Grip Lighting equipment, †
5. Film Camera Rental, rental checkout and rental prep. Ie collating lenses, flange focal check, etc. Oppenheimer Cine, or Koerner Camera
6. Small and large group location projects. Meetings to shoot
7. Stunts and Action Filming demonstration if available.
8. Camera operating demonstration if available
9. Steadicam use demonstration depending on system available.
10. Camera remote head Crane demonstration.
11. †Meeting in Davinci room to transfer student projects.
12. †Extra credit for editing student shooting projects.
13. †Camera Dolly demonstration.
14. Complex Lighting or Product lighting demonstration and exercises.
90% of available points and above = A
83% of available points and above = B
75% of available points and above = C
below 75% equal D